Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety Disorders Pharmacotherapy Treatment

Antianxiety Medications
General Information

Adjustment Disorder with Anxious Mood


General Information

Antianxiety are used to treat all types of anxiety disorders.


Benzodiazepines enhance the action of GABA ( GABA inhibits firing of neurons ). Physiological and psychological dependence may occur with benzodiazepines 4 chemical types of Benzodiazepine.
  • 2-keto compounds ( chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, diazepam, flurazepam, halazepam ).
    • Prodrugs ( inactive themselves but have active metabolites ).
    • Clorazepate has a fast onset.
    • Slowly oxidized in the liver.
    • Long half-lives.
  • 3-hydroxy compounds ( lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam ).
    • Active compounds does not generate active metabolites.
    • Shorter half-life then 2-keto compounds.
    • Metabolized rapidly.
  • Triazolo compounds ( alprazolam, estazolam, trizolam ).
    • Active compounds does not generate active metabolites.
    • Short half-lives.
    • Oxidized.
  • 7-nitro compounds ( clonazepam )
    • Active compounds does not generate active metabolites.
    • Long half-lives.
    • Metabolized by nitroreduction ( some by oxidation ).


Beta-Blockers are most often used as adjuncts to other drugs or for performance anxiety.
Beta-Blockers.
  • Most useful against the physical aspects of anxiety.
    • GI upset.
    • Palpitations.
    • Sweating.
    • Tachycardia.
    • Tremors.


Antidepressants HCAs, MAOIs, and SSRIs may be helpful for a variety of anxiety disorders. Antidepressants can be used to treat panic disorder ( not bupropion ).
Antidepressants
  • MAOIs
    • Social phobia.
  • SSRIs
    • GAD ( generalized anxiety disorder ).
    • OCD ( obsessive compulsive disorder ).
    • PTSD ( posttraumatic stress disorder ).
    • Social phobia.
    • Panic disorder ( not bupropion ).
  • TCAs
    • School phobia.
    • Separation anxiety.

Adjustment Disorder with Anxious Mood.

 
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