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Adlerian Therapy is a growth model. It stresses a positive view of human nature and that we are in control of our own fate. We start at an early age in creating our own unique style of life and that style stays relatively constant.
An Adlerian therapist will take a family history and use this data to help set goals for the client. The goal of Adlerian Therapy is to challenge and encourage premises and goals. Goals that are useful socially advantageous are encouraged. These goals may related to parenting skills, marriage and relationships, substance-abuse, and almost anything else that is a major life concern.
The initial stages of Adlerian therapy focuses on a client's lifestyle on building a relationship of mutual respect and trust. Then goals are set and the therapist provides encouragement and support. The therapist may also assign homework, set up contracts, and make suggestions on how the client can reach their goals.
Behavioral therapy revolves around the idea that behaviors are learned and that we are a product of our environment. People learn behaviors through reinforcement and imitation and abnormal behavior is a direct result of defective learning.
Behavioral therapy will include a treatment plan that lays out treatment goals and expected outcomes. Then, behavior modification is attempted through methods such as assertion, behavioral rehearsal, coaching, cognitive restructuring, desensitization, modeling, reinforcement and relaxation methods. Both client and therapist take an active role in learning desired behaviors. Behavior therapy is well suited to deal with depression, disorders in children's behavior, phobias, sexual disorders of any type, and stuttering.
Existential therapy focuses on the freedom that we have to shape our own lives - that we are capable of controlling our lives through self-determination and self-awareness. Existential therapy focuses on both the present and the future. The therapist tries to help the client embrace their own freedom and their future potential. Clients are challenged to recognize that they are responsible for the events in their life.
Gestalt therapy integrates the body and mind by stressing awareness and integration. The integration of behavior, feeling, and thinking is the main goal of Gestalt therapy. Clients are viewed as having the ability to recognize the impact of earlier life experiences. The client is is made aware of personal responsibility, taught how to avoid problems, encouraged to finish unfinished matters, to view things in a positive light, and to live in the present. The therapist teaches the client be more aware of each moment, then challenges the client to accept responsibility rather than assigning blame. The therapist may use confrontation, dream analysis, dialogue with polarities, or role playing as part of the process. Gestalt therapy can be effective for crisis intervention, marital/family therapy, child behavioral problems, psychosomatic disorders, or in the training of mental health professionals.
Person-centered therapy was founded by Carl Rogers in the 1940's. Rogers had great faith that we are able to work through our own problems. A person centered therapist tries to move clients towards self awareness, helping the client to experience previously denied feelings. The goal is to teach pepole to trust in themselves find their own life direction. The therapist and client must have faith that the client can and will find self-direction. The person-centered therapist believes that good mental health is a balance between the ideal self and real self. This gap between what we are and what we wish to be lies at the root of unhappiness and maladjusted behavior.
Psychotherapy (psychoanalysis) focus on the unconscious and its influence on human behavior. It maintains that a person is driven by aggressive and sexual impulses. It focus mainly on the first six years of human life and how the events of this time period determines personality. Repressed conflicts from childhood lead to personality problems later in life. Anxiety and abnormal behavior is a direct result of the repression of unresolved conflicts and unconscious motives. Psychotherapists believe that to develop a normal personality, a person must successful go through five psychosexual stages:
- Oral - Birth to 1 year: Sucking.
- Anal - 1 to 3 years: Holding and releasing urine and feces.
- Phallic - 3 to 6 years: Pleasure in genital stimulation.
- Latency - 6 to 11 years: Sexual instincts develop.
- Genital - Adolescence: Sexual impulses return.
Inadequate resolution of any of these stages leads to flawed personality development. By bringing repressed conflicts and desires to the conscious level, we can overcome our anxiety and behavioral issues. Psychotherapy is not useful for clients that are self-centered, impulsive, or severely psychotic.
Rational-emotive therapy is a highly action-oriented. It stresses the client's ability to think on their own and to change. The rational-emotive therapist believes that we are born with the ability to think rationally but that many fall victim to irrational thinking. The therapist believes that a neurosis is a result of irrational behavior and irrational thinking. Therapy will include methods of solving and dealing with emotional or behavior problems. The therapist will help the client to eliminate self-defeating outlooks and to view life in a rational way. The therapist will never have a personal relationship with the client. The therapist will think of the client as a student and themselves as the teacher.
The reality therapist teaches the client ways to control the world around them in a way that meets personal needs. The reality therapist focuses on the 'what and why' of the clients actions. They point out what the client doing and teach them to evaluate their behavior and feelings so that they can effectively control and manage their own needs. Read More about Reality Therapy
Transactional analysis focus on the cognitive and behavioral functioning. The client and therapist evaluate past decisions and look at how those decisions affect the present. They believe self-defeating behavior and feelings can be overcome through awareness. The therapist believes that personality is made up a combination of the parent, adult, and child. They believe that it is important for the client to examine past decisions in order to make new and better decisions.
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